Xylazine Injection is a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant for use in horses and Cervidae (Fallow Deer, Mule Deer, Sika Deer, White-Tailed Deer and Elk). Xylazine can be given by intramuscular, intravenous or subcutaneous routes and by dart gun.
Xylazine Injection should be used in horses and Cervidae when it is desirable to produce a state of sedation accompanied by a shorter period of analgesia.
For Use in Horses and Cervidae (Fallow Deer, Mule Deer, Sika Deer, White-Tailed Deer and Elk)
Horses: Xylazine (TranquiVed, AnaSed, Rompun and others) has been used successfully as follows:
1. Diagnostic procedures-oral and ophthalmic examinations, abdominal palpation, rectal palpation, vaginal examination, catheterization of the bladder and radiographic examinations.
2. Orthopedic procedures, such as application of casting materials and splints.
3. Dental procedures.
4. Minor surgical procedures of short duration such as debridement, removal of cutaneous neoplasms and suturing of lacerations.
5. To calm and facilitate handling of fractious animals.
6. Therapeutic medication for sedation and relief of pain following injury or surgery.
7. Major surgical procedures:
a. When used as a preanesthetic to general anesthesia.
b. When used in conjunction with local anesthetics.
Cervidae: Xylazine may be used for the following:
1. To calm and facilitate handling of fractious animals.
2. Diagnostic procedures.
3. Minor surgical procedures.
4. Therapeutic medication for sedation and relief of pain following injury or surgery.
5. As a preanesthetic to local anesthesia. Xylazine at the recommended dosages can be used in conjunction with local anesthetics, such as procaine or lidocaine.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
1. Dosage: Intravenously-0.5 ml/100 lbs body weight (0.5 mg/lb)
Intramuscularly-1.0 ml/100 lbs body weight (1.0 mg/lb)
Following injection of Xylazine, the animal should be allowed to rest quietly until the full effect has been reached.
These dosages produce sedation which is usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours, and analgesia which lasts for 15 to 30 minutes.
2. Preanesthetic to Local Anesthesia: Xylazine at the recommended dosages can be used in conjunction with local anesthetics, such as procaine or lidocaine.
3. Preanesthetic to General Anesthesia: Xylazine at the recommended dosage rates produces an additive effect to central nervous system depressants such as pentobarbital sodium, thiopental sodium and thiamyl sodium. Therefore, the dosage of such compounds should be reduced and administered to the desired effect. In general, only 1/3 to 1/2 of the calculated dosage of the barbiturates will be needed to produce a surgical plane of anesthesia. Post-anesthetic or emergence excitement has not been observed in animals preanesthetized with Xylazine.
Xylazine has been used successfully as a preanesthetic agent for pentobarbital sodium, thiopental sodium, thiamylal sodium, nitrous oxide, ether, halothane, glyceryl guaiacolate and methoxyflurane anesthesia.
Xylazine in horses and Cervidae, used at recommended dosage levels may occasionally cause slight muscle tremors, bradycardia with partial A-V heart block and a reduced respiratory rate. Movement in response to sharp auditory stimuli may be observed.
In horses, sweating, rarely profuse, has been reported following administration. In Cervidae, salivation, various vocalizations (bellowing, bleating, groaning, grunting, snoring) on expiration, audible grinding of molar teeth, protruding tongue and elevated temperatures have also been noted in some cases.
Careful consideration should be given before administering to horses and Cervidae with significantly depressed respiration, severe pathologic heart disease, advanced liver or kidney disease, severe endotoxic or traumatic shock and stress conditions such as extreme heat, cold, high altitude or fatigue.
Do not use Xylazine in conjunction with tranquilizers.
Analgesic effect is variable, and depth should be carefully assayed prior to surgical/clinical procedures. Variability of analgesia occurs most frequently at the distal extremities of horses and Cervidae. In spite of sedation, the practitioner and handlers should proceed with caution since defense reactions may not be diminished.
Since an additive effect results from the use of Xylazine and the barbiturate compounds, it should be used with caution with these central nervous system depressants. Products known to produce respiratory depression or apnea, such as thiamylal sodium, should be given at a reduced dosage and, when injected intravenously, should be administered slowly. When intravenous administration of Xylazine is desired, avoid perivascular injection in order to achieve the desired effect. Studies have shown negligible evidence of tissue irritation, however, following perivascular injection of xylazine.
Intracarotid Arterial Injection Should Be Avoided. As with many compounds, including tranquilizers, immediate violent seizures followed by collapse may result from inadvertent administration into the carotid artery. Although the reaction with Xylazine is usually transient and recovery may be rapid and complete, special care should be taken to assure that the needle is in the jugular vein rather than the carotid artery.
Bradycardia and arrhythmia in the form of incomplete atrioventricular block have been reported following xylazine administration. Although clinically the importance of this effect is questioned, a standard dose of atropine given prior to or following xylazine will greatly decrease the incidence.
Sedation for transport is most successful if actual transportation is begun after the full effect of the drug has been reached and the animal’s stability is maintained while standing. In addition, it should be noted that animals under the influence of xylazine can be aroused by noise or other stimuli and this may increase the risk of injury.
Xylazine is tolerated at 10 times the recommended dose in horses and at doses above the recommended range in Cervidae. However, some elevated doses produced muscle tremors and long periods of sedation.
This drug should not be administered to domestic food-producing animals. Not for use in horses intended for food.
Avoid accidental administration to humans. Should such exposure occur, notify a physician immediately. Artificial respiration may be indicated.
In Cervidae, occasional capture-associated deaths occur. Clinical trials reveal a mortality rate of approximately 3.5% attendant with the administration of xylazine.
Xylazine 100 mg/mL for intravenous or intramuscular use is available in 50 mL multiple dose vials.